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Thursday, July 07, 2016

Setting Environment Variables in Application Server/Process Scheduler Tuxedo Domains

The topic of how to manage environment variables was mentioned recently on the PeopleSoft Administrator Podcast
Recently I have built a pair of PeopleSoft environments for a proof-of-concept and have faced into exactly this problem.  I have two PS_APP_HOMEs (application homes) share the same PS_HOME (PeopleTools home).  The environment variables need to be correct before I open psadmin to administer the application server and process scheduler domains.
On Unix, I would usually recommend running domains for different PS_APP_HOMEs in different Unix user accounts.  Thus environmental variables can be set up in the .profile or .bashrc scripts.  The processes then run as different Unix users which makes them easier to monitor.  The Unix users should be in the same Unix group and have group permissions to the PS_HOME directory.  This approach is not possible on Windows.
The alternative is to have a scripts or a menu that sets up those variables before you enter psadmin.
I noticed that there is a new menu in the domain configuration menu in psadmin which permits you to set environmental variables that are then built into the Tuxedo domain configuration.  In fact this has always been possible by editing the psappsrv.ubx and psprcs.ubx files directly to cause variables to be created in the psappsrv.env and psprcs.env files, but now you just have to enter the variables through the menu in psadmin.
When we start psadmin we can see the relevant environmental parameters.   PS_APP_HOME points to my HR installation.
PSADMIN -- PeopleTools Release: 8.54.16
Copyright (c) 1996, 2014, Oracle. All rights reserved.

PeopleSoft Server Administration

  PS_CFG_HOME            /home/psadm1/psft/pt/8.54
  PS_HOME                /opt/oracle/psft/pt/tools
  PS_APP_HOME            /opt/oracle/psft/pt/hr91
  PS_CUST_HOME           /opt/oracle/psft/pt/hr91/pscust

  1) Application Server
But what if I have a Financials installation under the same PS_APP_HOME?  Option 16 of the configuration menu lets me define environmental settings.  Something very similar happens in the Process Scheduler configuration.
Quick-configure menu -- domain: RASC3K
      Features                      Settings
     ==========                    ==========
  1) Pub/Sub Servers   : Yes   17) DBNAME     :[XXXXXX]
 14) Load config as shown
 15) Custom configuration
 16) Edit environment settings
  h) Help for this menu
  q) Return to previous menu

HINT: Enter 17 to edit DBNAME, then 14 to load
So, I have added PS_APP_HOME, PS_CUST_HOME and INTERFACE_HOME and they have become a part of the configuration of the Tuxedo domain.
PeopleSoft Domain Environment Settings
     Domain Name: RASC3K

     TEMP                     :[{LOGDIR}{FS}tmp]
     TMP                      :[{LOGDIR}{FS}tmp]
     TM_BOOTTIMEOUT           :[120]
     FLDTBLDIR32              :[{$TUXDIR}{FS}udataobj]
     FIELDTBLS32              :[jrep.f32,tpadm]
     ALOGPFX                  :[{LOGDIR}{FS}TUXACCESSLOG]
     INFORMIXSERVER           :[{$Startup\ServerName}]
     COBPATH                  :[{$PS_APP_HOME}/cblbin:{$PS_HOME}/cblbin]
     PATH                     :[{$PATH}:{$Domain Settings\Add to PATH}]
     PS_APP_HOME              :[/opt/oracle/psft/pt/fin91]
     PS_CUST_HOME             :[/opt/oracle/psft/pt/fin91/pscust]
     INTERFACE_HOME           :[/opt/oracle/psft/pt/fin91/pscust/interfaces]

  1) Edit environment variable
  2) Add environment variable
  3) Remove environment variable
  4) Comment / uncomment environment variable
  5) Show resolved environment variables
  6) Save
  h) Help for this menu
  q) Return to previous menu

Command to execute (1-6, h or q) :
What is going on here?  These variables have been added to the PS_ENVFILE section of psappsrv.ubx.
# ----------------------------------------------------------------------
# Set IPC_EXIT_PROCESS=1 to use ExitProcess to terminate server process.
# Set IPC_TERMINATE_PROCESS=1 to use TerminateProcess to terminate server process.
# If both are set, TerminateProcess will be used to terminate server process.
PATH={$PS_HOME}\verity\{VERITY_OS}\{VERITY_PLATFORM}\bin;{$PATH};{$Domain Settings\Add to PATH}
PATH={$PATH}:{$Domain Settings\Add to PATH}
They then appear in the psappsrv.env file that is generated when the domain is configured.  This file contains fully resolved values of environmental variables that are set by every tuxedo application server process when it starts.
# Set IPC_EXIT_PROCESS=1 to use ExitProcess to terminate server process.
# Set IPC_TERMINATE_PROCESS=1 to use TerminateProcess to terminate server process.
# If both are set, TerminateProcess will be used to terminate server process.


I found that I had to specify fully resolved paths for the variables I defined.  I do try setting variables in terms of other variables,
     PS_APP_HOME              :[/opt/oracle/psft/pt/fin91]
     PS_CUST_HOME             :[{$PS_APP_HOME}{FS}pscust]
     INTERFACE_HOME           :[{$PS_CUST_HOME}{FS}interfaces]
but I started to get errors.
Value for PS_CUST_HOME: {$PS_APP_HOME}{FS}pscust, is invalid.  Your environment
may not work as expected.
And some variables were not fully resolved in the psappsrv.env file.

Configuration Settings in the .ubx –v- .cfg

My only reservation is that there is now environment specific configuration in the psappsrv.ubx file, rather than the psappsrv.cfg file.   When I have done this in the past I would create additional variables in psappsrv.cfg that were referenced from the psappsrv.ubx file.  Thus the psappsrv.ubx was consistent across environments, and all the configuration is in the main configuration file psappsrv.cfg.
Although, you can add additional variables in psappsrv.cfg, thus
[Domain Settings]
; General settings for this Application Server.
Application Home=/opt/oracle/psft/pt/fin91
Custom Directory=pscust
Interface Directory=pscust/interfaces
and then reference them in the variables, and they will resolve correctly in the psappsrv.env.
PS_APP_HOME={$Domain Settings\Application Home}
PS_CUST_HOME={$Domain Settings\PS_APP_HOME}{FS}{$Domain Settings\Custom Directory}
INTERFACE_HOME={$Domain Settings\PS_APP_HOME}{FS}{$Domain Settings\Interface Directory}
You may experience errors in psadmin
Value for PS_APP_HOME: {$Domain Settings\Application Home}, is invalid.  Your
environment may not work as expected.

Value for PS_CUST_HOME: {$Domain Settings\Application Home}{FS}{$Domain
Settings\Custom Directory}, is invalid.  Your environment may not work as


Using this technique, it does not matter how environment variables are set when you go into psadmin to start the application server, the correct setting is defined in the Tuxedo domain and overrides that.
You have always been able to do this in Tuxedo, but you would have had to edit the psappsrv.ubx file yourself, now the menu allows you to administer this.
There is no way to view the psappsrv.ubx and psappsrv.env files from within psadmin, only psappsrv.cfg can be opened.  If you want to check your settings have reached the psappsrv.env file, you will need to leave psadmin and look in the files for yourself.

Friday, May 06, 2016

PeopleSoft on Oracle 12c

I was asked by Dan Iverson from about my experiences of PeopleSoft on Oracle 12c.  I have seen a number of PeopleSoft Financials systems on 12c recently.  Generally the experience is very positive, but one common feature is that they had all disabled Adaptive Query Optimization.

What is Adaptive Query Optimization?

Adaptive Query Optimization is a term for a set of new features in Oracle 12c to allow the optimizer to improve the accuracy of execution plans.  It is described in the Optimizer with Oracle 12c white paper.  Put simply, Oracle collects additional statistics at parse which it can use to generate a better execution plan than if just using the ordinarily collected statistics, and further statistics at execution time which can be used to decide to change the next execution of the same SQL statement.

Why does it cause a Problem in PeopleSoft?

Adaptive Optimization is clearly a very useful feature in an application where SQL is shareable and reused.  But there's the rub.  This is another Oracle feature that works best with an application that is written the way that Oracle advise applications be written (Automatic Memory Management and the plan stability/management technologies also come to mind), and PeopleSoft is not such an application.  PeopleSoft applications are SQL parse intensive.

Parsing SQL is an expensive business in terms of time and CPU.  The library cache preserves the results of previous parses to save the overhead of repeatedly parsing the same SQL for subsequent executions.  If the SQL is different, even just by a literal value, it will have a different SQL_ID and will not be matched.  If SQL statements in the library cache are not being reused, then you incur the cost of parse for each execution.  Adaptive Optimization adds to that overhead, in PeopleSoft sometimes to the point where it can have a significant effect on performance.

PeopleSoft has several behaviours which lead to different SQL statements being generated from the same source:

  • Application Engine %BIND() variables are resolved to literals in the generated SQL if the ReUseStatement attribute is not set, which by default it is not.  Thus, each iteration of a loop may cause the same Application Engine step to produce a different SQL statement with a different SQL ID (see Performance Benefits of ReUse Statement Flag in Application Engine).  PeopleSoft development have got better at using this attribute in delivered code.  However, there are still many places where it could be set but is not.
  • There are many places in PeopleSoft where SQL is generated dynamically to cater for dynamic application configuration options.  Bind variables may be embedded in the SQL as literals, or more significant changes may be introduced such as completely different criteria or joining different tables.  In Application Engine, ReUseStatement usually cannot be used in conjunction with such steps.
  • Different concurrently executing instances of the same Application Engine programs will be allocated a different non-shared instance of a temporary record, so they reference different tables.  
Some parts of PeopleSoft do produce shareable SQL statements.  Much of the SQL generated by the component processor and PeopleCode uses bind variables, the exception being where dynamic SQL is generated in PeopleCode.  PeopleSoft COBOL programs also widely uses bind variables, but again some places dynamically generate SQL statements.

What does Oracle say about it?

There are a number of documents on the Oracle support website that touch on this (you will need to log in to follow these links):

Advice for the PeopleSoft Oracle DBA: The source of this document is not clear.  It is not attached to a MOS note, and is not in the usual format for such notes.  It is the only document that I can find that makes specific recommendations for Adaptive Optimization in conjunction with PeopleSoft, and it recommends totally disabling the entire Adaptive Optimization feature:
  • "optimizer_adaptive_features = FALSE - After upgrading to Oracle Database 12c, many PeopleSoft customers have noticed overall performance degradation which is related to Oracle 12c Optimizer Adaptive Feature (OAF). It is recommended that this value be disabled in all Oracle Databases running PeopleSoft Applications."
  • It has always been tempting to enable cursor_sharing with PeopleSoft so that Oracle converts literals in the SQL back to bind variables and thus matching SQLs in the library cache with different literal values.  However, it has no benefit for some dynamic SQL and different temporary table instances.  It can also introduce other optimizer problems.  On the few occasions that I have tried it, I have never had a good experience.  This document also recommends against it.
How to Approach Issues that Appear Related to Adaptive Features Such as Adaptive Query Optimization (Doc ID 2068807.1): This note acknowledges that "while some issues with adaptive features have been found, in a number of cases, issues manifesting as performance degradation associated with Adaptive Query Optimization simply highlight deficiencies in the system, primarily inaccurate or stale object or system statistics,  Due to the nature of the activities that Adaptive Query Optimization perform, the impact of degraded performance can be widespread and can include (but not limited to):
    • Poor SQL execution performance (where a poor plan is selected)
    • Poor Parse performance (where the optimizer takes more time to determine the optimal access path)
  • The scope of either of the issues may not be limited to individual statements but can impact the whole system in unforeseen ways, for example both poor SQL execution and parse performance may cause locks to be held for a greater duration than normal causing lock contention while poor parse performance may hold latches or mutexes to similar results.
  • Blanket disabling of features: While disabling Adaptive Features with blanket parameters (see: Document 2031605.1) may provide a short term workaround, the loss of their benefits to other queries may be significant. If the underlying cause is some other factor then a better solution is to identify and address that"
Adaptive Query Optimization (Doc ID 2031605.1) discusses how to disable either the entire Adaptive Query Optimization feature
OPTIMIZER_ADAPATIVE_FEATURES=FALSE /*disables adaptive optimisation as a whole*/
or to disable individual sub-features
_optimizer_adaptive_plans=false /*disables adaptive plans*/
_optimizer_use_feedback=false /*disables the use of statistics feedback for subsequent executions.  Default is true*/
_px_adaptive_dist_method=off /*disables the adaptive parallel distribution methods*/
_optimizer_dsdir_usage_control=0 /* disables the optimizer usage of dynamic statistics (sampling) directives. Default value is 126 */
_optimizer_gather_feedback=false /*disables the gathering of execution feedback in the optimizer*/
_optimizer_nlj_hj_adaptive_join=false /*disables only the adaptive join from nested loops to hash join*/


I have worked with a number of PeopleSoft Financials systems on Oracle 12c.  All but one of them had already disabled Adaptive Query Optimization, and I had to disable it on that one.  Once disabled performance improved such that it was at least as good as it had been on 11g.
There is no question that it is important to maintain accurate statistics and histograms on tables in PeopleSoft.  I have written elsewhere about how to achieve that, especially on temporary tables.  However, I am left with a concern that disabling the entire feature may be excessive, and that there may be areas in PeopleSoft where it can bring some benefits.  I would like to find the opportunity to test whether it is possible to achieve better performance by only disabling certain parts of the feature.

Wednesday, April 20, 2016

PS360: A Utility to Extract and Present PeopleSoft Configuration and Performance Data


Most of a PeopleSoft application is itself stored in the database in PeopleTools tables.  Therefore there is lot of information about the configuration and operation of a PeopleSoft system.  There are also performance metrics, particularly about batch processes.
PS360 is a new tool on which I am working.  It just uses SQL scripts to extract that data to html files, and package them up in a zip file so that they can be sent for further analysis.  The style and method is closely modelled on Enkitec's EDB360 by Carlos Sierra.  This is another free tool used for health check and performance analysis of any Oracle database system.  PS360 aims to gather PeopleSoft specific information that is not presented by EDB360.  It also runs in Oracle's SQL*Plus tool, and so is only available for use with an Oracle database.
Every section of PS360 is just the output of a SQL query, sometimes pre-processing is done in an anonymous PL/SQL block.  It does not install anything into the database, and does not update any table (other than the PLAN_TABLE which is used for temporary working storage).  Each report is in tabular and/or graphical format.  All the charts are produced with the Google chart API.
The output falls into three sections.  
  • Configuration: Simple reports of certain configuration tables.
  • Performance Metrics: Process Scheduler and Application Engine timings
  • Consistency Checks: both within PeopleTools tables and between the PeopleSoft and Oracle catalogues.
Sample PS360 Index Page generated on PeopleSoft Demo Database


The tool can be run by anyone with access to the PeopleSoft Owner database user (usually SYSADM).  That user will already have privilege to read the Oracle catalogue.
Download the tool and unzip it into a directory.  Navigate to the ps360 (master) directory, open SQL*Plus and connect as SYSADM.  Execute the script ps360.sql.  The output will be written to a zip file in the same directory.  Unpack that zip file on your own PC and open the file ps360_[database name]_0_index.html with a browser.

Feedback Enhancements

I am looking for feedback about the tool, and suggestions for further enhancements.
Please either leave comments here or e-mail me at

Tuesday, April 19, 2016

nVision Performance Tuning: Coalescing Tree Leaves

I have blogged recently about the effectiveness of the Tree Performance options in improving the performance of nVision reports.
However, a consequence of the Tree Performance Access Method suppress join; use literal values is that the resulting SQL in nVision will have a criteria for every leaf on each of the selected nodes on that tree.
nVision Tree Performance Options|

There will be an equality condition for each single value leaf. I normally set Selector Options to Ranges of values (BETWEEN), so I get a between condition for each ranged leaf. Behind the scenes, Oracle rewrites between as a pair of inequalities, so there is no difference, but the SQL generated by nVision is slightly shorter.
The following is typical of nVision SQL with these performance options set.
) AND (
  A.DEPTID='8220' OR A.DEPTID='A704' OR A.DEPTID='A121' OR A.DEPTID='A110' OR 
A consequence of all the criteria is that Oracle can take a long time to parse the SQL statement. It may only be a few seconds in the case of a single SQL statement, but an nVision report book can consist of thousands of SQL statements.
To produce the following performance profile, I enabled Oracle SQL trace for a report book and profiled the trace. SQL Parse accounted for nearly 8% of the total runtime of this report book, so it can be significant, and can vary widely.
Event Name
% Time
- Time per Call -
FETCH calls [CPU]
db file sequential read
SQL*Net message from client [idle]
PARSE calls [CPU]


Reducing the number of criteria in the SQL will reduce the parse time, but that is determined by the way the tree leaves are defined.
The leafcoal.sql script seeks to address this by repeatedly merging two consecutive leaves on the same tree node into a single ranged leaf where possible. It performs two checks before merging adjacent leaves on the same tree node:
  • There is not an intermediate value on the detail field defined in the tree structure record. So if the detail field was DEPT_TBL.DEPTID, the script checks that there are no values of DEPTID on PS_DEPT_TBL that are not currently selected by existing leaves that would be included in the merged leaf.
  • There is not another leaf on another node on the tree that would intersect with the merged leaf.


leafcoal.sql was written as an anonymous PL/SQL block, so there is nothing to install. It should be run in SQL*Plus connected as the PeopleSoft owner ID (usually SYSADM). It is expected that there are some adjustments to the script that the user may need to make. As delivered, it runs in a test mode that does not update the database but reports on what it would do. Change k_testmode to FALSE to make it update the database.
k_testmode     CONSTANT BOOLEAN := FALSE; /*set this false to perform update*/
The level of output emitted depends on the variable l_debug_variable
l_debug_level  INTEGER := 4;
  • 1. end of processing message 
  • 2. start of processing for tree 
  • 3. number of leaves in tree and number of leaves coalesced 
  • 4. details of leaves being compressed 
  • 5. start and end of each procedure 
  • 6. parameters passed to functions 
  • 7. number of rows updated/deleted during coalesce 
  • 8. dynamic SQL statement 
The script reports on the work it has done. It does not commit its updates. That is left for the user to either commit or rollback.

.(3)Processing SHARE, ,XXX_ACCOUNT,151201                                       
.(4)634 nodes, 2636 leaves                                                      
.(4)1358 leaves coalesced (52%)                                                 
(1)Commit changes or rollback                                       
The query at the end of the script determines which trees will be processed and may need to be changed as required. For example, you might choose to coalesce the leaves on

  • specific trees,
  • most recent effective dated trees,
  • trees with literal values performance option

  FOR i IN (
    SELECT DISTINCT d.setid, d.setcntrlvalue, d.tree_name, d.effdt
    FROM   pstreedefn d    
    ,      pstreestrct s
    ,      psrecfielddb f
    WHERE  d.tree_strct_id = s.tree_strct_id
    AND    s.node_fieldname = 'TREE_NODE'
--  AND    d.TREE_ACC_METHOD = 'L' --literal values
    AND    s.dtl_recname = f.recname 
    AND    s.dtl_fieldname = f.fieldname
--  AND    tree_name = 'XXX_ACCOUNT'
  ) LOOP


The number of leaves coalesced depends entirely on how the trees have been built. At one customer it has produced a reduction of over 50%, at another it was only 10%. The reduction in the number of leaves does produce a corresponding reduction in time spent on SQL parse time during nVision reports.

Friday, March 25, 2016

Interview with PeopleSoft Administrator Podcast

I recently recorded an interview with Dan Iverson and Kyle Benson for the PeopleSoft Administrator Podcast. It has been spread over three episodes. There is lots of other good stuff on the website and other episodes that are well worth listening to.

(25 March 2016) #21 - Temporary Tables

(8 April 2016) #23 - The Application Server

(15 April 2016) #24 - Application Server Tuning

You can listen to the podcast on, or subscribe with your favourite podcast player, or in iTunes.